Why India lack High-rise Buildings and Skyscrapers ?
Skyscrapers have invariably been storytellers. Draw up next to a historic building and you’ll hear tales of the time within which they were made. You’ll find out about design and innovation. however today’s skyscrapers discuss quite an earlier era.
They also symbolize the growth of the country and its economy. India has an average annual growth of 6% of GDP, which is good for economy. When the economy is good, it means that the market value of that place is good. Which will bring major investments to India that will eventually give rise to jobs and real estate, leading to development of the country.
With all these factors considered, why are there no high rise buildings and skyscrapers in India?
But first, let's know that 'High rise' buildings are those buildings that are taller than 35 m.
'Skyscrapers' are those buildings that are taller than 150m in height.
There are 3 reasons why India doesn't have many skyscrapers or High rise buildings. They are FSI, Connectivity and Sustainability.
Floor Space Index (FSI)
Floor Space Index (FSI), also referred to as Floor Area Ratio (FAR), is the ratio of total floor area of a building (Built up area) to the total Plot area (land). This numeric value indicates the total amount of area (on all floors) you can build upon a plot.
Higher the floor area ratio, taller the building.
The FSI or the FAR are determined by the City Development Planning Authority of the country. India's average FSI lies between 1.1 to 4.5 according to Development Control Regulations (DCR) of India and the FSI varies from city to city.
Cities in India have low FSI. For example, Mumbai has 1.33 and population density of 32,400 people per 1 sq km. Whereas, New York has a FSI which is 15 times higher than Mumbai and the population density is 20 times lesser than Mumbai.
If the FSI of Mumbai is 15 which is same as New York, imagine the increase in population density in future. That's the prime reason why India has a lesser FSI.
Horizontal Spread - Connectivity
India's development pattern of cities were always been in horizontal pattern. The urban area was covered by the rural space on all sides. Hence any development that happened, it spread horizontally.
By this way, the density in the center part of the city was not higher and the connectivity between the urban and rural areas was made easier.
However, places like Mumbai have a different landscape condition where it is surrounded by hilly terrains and water bodies.
Hence, the scope of spreading horizontal in not possible in Mumbai, that's the reason why we see Mumbai has a vertical development in India when compared to other cities even with a higher population density.
Sustainability - Heat Island Effect
The term "heat island" describes built up areas that are hotter than nearby rural areas.
Heat islands will have an effect on communities by increasing time of year peak energy demand, air con prices, pollution and gas emissions, heat-related ill health and mortality, and pollution.
When there is a vertical development. Chances of that area experiencing traffic will be higher and emission of greenhouse gases from vehicle will be more.
Because of major development and the absence of trees, the particular area will experience a 2 degree more heat than the rural area (covered with trees) with a horizontal spread development.
Hence, it's good to battle against global warming and ozone depletion to save the environment and lives, which all comes from urban and rural development.